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In Situ Density Test- Part 1 (Core Cutter Method)

In soil mechanics, No matter what you are calculating whether it's bearing capacity of soil or stresses in soil, you encounter with a term 'Density of soil'. The density of soil is used in calculating the stresses in soil, Earth pressure beyond the Retaining wall, Dam, Embankment and Estimation of soil settlement under structural loads. It is also used in Field Compaction of soil and in many other method.
In simple language, we can defined Density of soil as ratio of Mass of soil to Volume of that soil (Mass per unit volume of soil).

                                             Density, γ= W/V

            γ= mass density of soil
           W= weight of soil 
            V= volume of soil

For dry density we know, 

   where w= water content

For calculating the density of soil, there are number of field test. From which, we are going to discuss Core Cutter method.

Cylindrical core cutter (height=12.7 cm & internal dia= 10 cm)Steel RammerSteel dolly (height= 2.5 cm & d…

Beams,loads and their types

                     BEAMS ,LOADS AND ITS TYPES

 To start studying about the shear force and bending moment of different types of beams with different types of loads,we should have knowledge of  beams and loads .

BEAM: Structural member which carries the transverse load or force (force which acting perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of structure. 

  • Simply supported beam
  • Cantilever beam
  • Overhanging beam
  • Fixed beams
  • Continous beam
Simply Supported beam: A beam supported or resting freely on the supports at its both ends. Such beam is shown as below:

Cantilever beam: A beam which is fixed at one end with support and free at the other end.

Overhanging beams: A  simply supported beam whose end portion is extended beyond the support.

Fixed beam: A beam whose both ends are fixed or built-in walls.It is also known as built-in or encastred beam.
Continuous beam: A beam which has more than 2 supports. We can also say that it is extended form of simply supported beam.

Load: The external force acting on the section or member. For study of shear force and bending moment, we classify the load into following manner:-
  • Point load or concentrated load: The load which act on a single point of any section or member,although in practice it must really be distributed on very small area.
  • Uniform distributed load: The load  which is spread over a beam or section uniformly along the length.It is expressed as  w N/m. It is represented by u.d.l.
                           For solving the numerical problems,the total uniformly distributed load is converted into point load acting at centre of uniformly distributed load.
  •  Uniformly varying load: The load which is spread on the section of member such that rate of loading varies from the point to point as shown in the below figure in which load at one section is zero and increase uniformly to the other end. It is also known as triangular load.
                    For solving the problems the total load is equal to the area of  triangular and this total load is assumed to be acting at centre of gravity of the triangle i.e. at a distance of 2/3 rd of total length from the left side.

For further reading wait for my next blog on shear force and bending moment of different beams with different type of load.
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